The aim of these lectures is to address the developmental processes that contribute to the formation of the central and of the peripheral nervous system, and the molecular, cellular and systemic mechanisms that regulate these processes. The development will be studied from the initial formation of the neural tissue (neurulation) to the wiring of interconnected functional circuits. Mechanistic aspects will focus on the genetic regulators and signalling pathways involved in neural induction, patterning of the nervous system (morphogens), neuronal and glial differentiation, neuronal migration, axonal growth and guidance and synaptogenesis, and on activity-dependent maturation of neural circuitry. The alterations of the development of the nervous system, either of endogenous or exogenous origin, will be analyzed. Finally, the experimental approaches specifically dedicated to the study of neural development will be presented.